‘We’re only seeing the negative’: UK farmers on Brexit and losing the common agricultural policy
-In the third of our series looking at the impact of the Brexit trade deal, the Guardian talks to farmers about the difficulties they face

“我們只看到了消極的一面”₪•▩₪:英國農民對脫歐和失去共同農業政策感到不滿
——在我們關於英國脫歐貿易協議影響的系列文章的第三篇中✘✘,《衛報》與農民談論了他們面臨的困難


(Ian Rickman at his Gurnos farm in the village of Bethlehem, near Llandeilo, Wales.)

(伊恩·裡克曼在他位於威爾士蘭代洛附近伯利恆村的Gurnos農場•✘☁▩☁。)
新聞₪•▩₪:

Sitting in his 18th-century farmhouse in the uplands of Bethlehem, in the breathtaking western reaches of the Brecon Beacons, Ian Rickman ponders the damage Brexit has done to his future. Two years since the UK quit the EU, the future for mountain sheep-farmers such as him is full of economic precarity.

伊恩·裡克曼坐在他位於伯利恆高地的18世紀農舍裡✘✘,思索著英國脫歐對他的未來造成的損害•✘☁▩☁。英國退出歐盟兩年來✘✘,像他這樣的山區牧羊農民的未來充滿了經濟不穩定•✘☁▩☁。

He has lost unfettered access to his nearest export market, faces reduction in farm subsidies as the result of the loss of the common agricultural policy (CAP), and has been disadvantaged by trade deals giving access to the UK market to rival farmers from Australia and New Zealand.

他失去了通往最近出口市場的自由通道✘✘,由於失去了共同農業政策✘✘,他面臨著農業補貼的減少✘✘,而且由於貿易協議允許澳大利亞和紐西蘭的競爭對手進入英國市場✘✘,他處於不利地位•✘☁▩☁。

“From a sheep farmer’s point of view, there’s no good outcome from those trade deals,” says Rickman.

裡克曼說₪•▩₪:“從牧羊農民的角度來看✘✘,這些貿易協議沒有好的結果•✘☁▩☁。”

“Their predominant international markets are China and the far east. Why give them access to the UK? At the moment we are fine, but if for some reason there were, God forbid, a Ukrainian-type situation in the far east and sanctions imposed overnight, they will use the huge access to our market,” he says.

“他們主要的國際市場是中國和遠東地區•✘☁▩☁。為什麼要讓他們進入英國↟◕↟?目前我們還好✘✘,但如果出於某種原因✘✘,天知道✘✘,萬一遠東地區也出現了烏克蘭式的局勢✘✘,一夜之間就實施了制裁✘✘,他們將利用進入我們市場的巨大渠道✘✘,”他表示•✘☁▩☁。

It is a subject that jangles the nerves of farmers across Wales who see Brexit as all downside.

這是一個刺激威爾士農民神經的話題✘✘,他們認為英國脫歐只會帶來負面影響•✘☁▩☁。

“A great deal is something more beneficial to agriculture. At the moment we haven’t, we’re only seeing the negative,” says Rickman. “There’s no way you can dress those trade deals up as a as a good thing. I’ve heard farmers say the industry was more or less chucked under a bus.”

“好的協議對農業更有利•✘☁▩☁。但目前還沒有✘✘,我們只看到了消極的一面•✘☁▩☁。”裡克曼說•✘☁▩☁。“你不可能把這些貿易協議包裝成一件好事•✘☁▩☁。我聽農民們說✘✘,這個行業或多或少受到了打擊•✘☁▩☁。”

Guto Bebb, the managing director of the Farmers’ unx of Wales (FUW), says his counterparts in Australia are very pleased with the contingency they now have if the Chinese market were to be closed off.

威爾士農民聯盟常務董事古託·貝布表示✘✘,如果中國市場被關閉✘✘,他的澳大利亞同行們對他們現在擁有的(進入英國市場的)應急措施非常滿意•✘☁▩☁。

“But where’s our insurance policy after losing the single market? We don’t have one,” he says.

“但在失去單一市場後✘✘,我們自己的保險政策在哪裡呢↟◕↟?我們沒有✘✘,”他說•✘☁▩☁。

A study by the statutory levy body the Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board has concluded that New Zealand exports to the UK would rise by “about 13,000 tonnes (31%) if China imposed a 25% tariff on New Zealand lamb imports and 29,000 tonnes (69%) if there was an outright ban.”

法定徵稅機構農業和園藝發展局的一項研究得出結論✘✘,如果中國對紐西蘭羊肉進口徵收25%的關稅✘✘,紐西蘭對英國的出口將增加約1.3萬噸(31%)✘✘,如果完全禁止紐西蘭羊肉進口✘✘,那麼紐西蘭對英國的出口將增加2.9萬噸(69%)•✘☁▩☁。

Energy prices for everyone are going through the roof, while at the same time the cost of selling to the EU, which represents 33% of the lamb export market, has also spiralled.

每個人的能源價格都在飆升✘✘,與此同時✘✘,向歐盟銷售羊肉的成本也在螺旋式上升✘✘,佔羊肉出口市場的33%•✘☁▩☁。

A cross-industry veterinary and environmental health group, the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Certification Working Group, estimated that the new requirement for export health certificates, signed off by a vet, added £60m to the cost of food exports to Europe in 2021.

一個跨行業的獸醫和環境衛生組織——衛生和植物衛生認證工作組估計✘✘,對出口衛生證書由獸醫簽署的新要求✘✘,將使2021年出口到歐洲的食品成本增加6000萬英鎊•✘☁▩☁。

“It hasn’t been doomsday, but it is a question of more and more problems being added to trade,” says Bebb. “Brexit barriers are so unnecessary and for so little gain.”

“這還不是世界末日✘✘,但這是一個被新增到貿易上的越來越嚴重的問題✘✘,” 貝布說•✘☁▩☁。“脫歐壁壘是如此不必要✘✘,而且收效甚微•✘☁▩☁。”

Mountain sheep farming is a tough business, with many hill farmers unable to survive without subsidies, threatening not just livelihoods but the presence of a farmer as pastoral keeper of the land, which in Rickman’s case is part of one of Wales’s national parks.

山地牧羊是一項艱難的營生✘✘,許多山裡人沒有補貼就無法生存✘✘,不僅威脅到生計✘✘,還威脅到農民作為土地牧民的存在✘✘,就裡克曼而言✘✘,他的土地是威爾士國家公園之一的一部分•✘☁▩☁。

Before returning to the subject of Brexit, Rickman talks of the importance of sheep grazing the uplands to keep grasses down and minimising the risk of climate change wildfires with tinder dry detritus building up.

在回到英國脫歐的話題之前✘✘,裡克曼談到了綿羊在高原上吃草✘✘,以減少草地的生長✘✘,並將氣候變化引起的野火的風險降至最低的重要性•✘☁▩☁。
原創翻譯₪•▩₪:龍騰網 http://www.ltaaa.cn 轉載請註明出處


Sitting in his kitchen, Rickman explains how his farming sector has been cushioned from the worst of Brexit as inflation has driven up the price of red meat.

裡克曼坐在廚房裡✘✘,解釋了他的農業產業是如何在英國脫歐最糟糕的情況下得到緩衝的✘✘,因為通貨膨脹推高了紅肉的價格•✘☁▩☁。

Figures for 2020-21 show income from cattle and sheep farming in “less favoured areas” up 32% to £29,900. In other years it has been dangerously low – in 2017, the president of the FUW said it had dipped to £13,000, less than half the national average wage.

2020- 2021年的資料顯示✘✘,在“不太受歡迎的地區”✘✘,牛羊養殖的收入增長了32%✘✘,達到2.99萬英鎊•✘☁▩☁。在其他年份✘✘,工資一直處於危險的低水平——2017年✘✘,英國勞工聯合會的負責人表示✘✘,工資已降至1.3萬英鎊✘✘,不到全國平均工資的一半•✘☁▩☁。

Brexit, the government said, was about giving farmers “for the first time in 50 years [the] chance to do things differently”.

政府表示✘✘,英國脫歐是為了給農民“50年來第一次以不同的方式做事的機會”•✘☁▩☁。

George Eustice, then the environment secretary, asserted in 2020 that “it makes no sense to subsidise land ownership and tenure where the largest subsidy payments too often go to the wealthiest landowners”.

時任環境大臣喬治·尤斯蒂斯在2020年斷言✘✘,“補貼土地所有權和使用權毫無意義✘✘,因為最大的補貼往往流向最富有的土地所有者”•✘☁▩☁。

Among the beneficiaries of CAP direct payments, which were made per hectare, were the Brexiter James Dyson, who received more than £5m from the EU, and the former Daily Mail editor Paul Dacre, who pocketed £88,000 for his Scottish Langwell estate in one year alone.

共同農業政策按公頃直接支付的受益者包括脫歐派人士詹姆斯·戴森✘✘,他從歐盟獲得了500多萬英鎊;以及前《每日郵報》編輯保羅·戴克✘✘,僅一年時間✘✘,他在蘇格蘭朗威爾的莊園就獲得了8.8萬英鎊•✘☁▩☁。
原創翻譯₪•▩₪:龍騰網 http://www.ltaaa.cn 轉載請註明出處


But the National Farmers’ unx (NFU) and the FUW fear for the small farmers who are dependent on the CAP. MPs on the Welsh affairs committee expressed concern in 2022 “that around a fifth of Welsh farms had a farm business income of less than zero” with an average income of £26,000 per farm. Government research shows that the subsidy is the difference between profit and loss for 42% of farms in the UK.

但全國農民聯盟和英國勞工聯合會擔心依賴共同農業政策的小農•✘☁▩☁。威爾士事務委員會的議員在2022年表示擔心✘✘,“大約五分之一的威爾士農場的農場業務收入低於零”✘✘,每個農場的平均收入為2.6萬英鎊•✘☁▩☁。政府研究表明✘✘,有沒有補貼決定著英國42%的農場是盈利還是虧損•✘☁▩☁。

Launched in 1962 as a partnership between agriculture and society, the CAP was envisaged as an income support scheme after research showed farmers’ income was 40% lower than non-agricultural incomes.

共同農業政策作為農業和社會之間的夥伴關係於1962年推出✘✘,在研究表明農民收入比非農業收入低40%之後✘✘,被設想為一項收入支援計劃•✘☁▩☁。

“I don’t get government support [EU subsidy] and then squirrel it away in my Swiss bank account or go off to Barbados. That doesn’t happen. That money goes straight out to the local businesses,” says Rickman, referring the vet, the mechanic, the feed supplier and the fence contractor. “Farming is the backbone of the rural economy.”

“我得不到政府的支援(歐盟補貼)✘✘,然後把它存在我的瑞士銀行賬戶裡✘✘,或者去巴貝多•✘☁▩☁。這種情況不會發生•✘☁▩☁。這些錢直接流向了當地企業✘✘,”裡克曼說✘✘,他指的是獸醫·•、機械師·•、飼料供應商和圍欄承包商•✘☁▩☁。“農業是農村經濟的支柱•✘☁▩☁。”

Agriculture is a devolved competency and as Wales is still designing the replacement for the CAP, farmers such as Rickman are still getting direct payments.

農業是一個權力下放的領域✘✘,並且由於威爾士仍在設計共同農業政策的替代方案✘✘,像裡克曼這樣的農民仍能獲得直接補貼•✘☁▩☁。

But Wales has accused Westminster of a political sleight of hand when carving up the amounts across the four nations of the UK.

但威爾士指責威斯敏斯特在英國的四個聯合國家分配這筆款項時耍了政治花招•✘☁▩☁。

The FUW has calculated Wales will be £225m down over the life of the current parliament on the basis that it had not yet used up all of the EU funding.

英國勞工聯合會計算出✘✘,在本屆議會任期內✘✘,威爾士將減少2.25億英鎊✘✘,因為它還沒有用完所有的歐盟資金•✘☁▩☁。
原創翻譯₪•▩₪:龍騰網 http://www.ltaaa.cn 轉載請註明出處


“It is political games. We take the view that the Westminster government is guilty of breaching a manifesto promise that it would match spending pound for pound,” says Bebb.

“這是政治遊戲•✘☁▩☁。我們認為✘✘,威斯敏斯特政府違反了宣言中的承諾✘✘,即它將匹配每一英鎊的支出✘✘,”貝布說•✘☁▩☁。

“Just because some of the money has not been spent does not mean it has not been allocated to a project. We’ve had a bypass near me open recently that was funded by the EU in 2020. You are allowed overhangs if projects take time to get up and running and completed,” he adds.

“只是因為一些錢沒有花出去✘✘,並不意味著它沒有分配到一個專案上•✘☁▩☁。最近在我附近開通了一條旁路✘✘,它是由歐盟在2020年資助的•✘☁▩☁。如果專案啟動·•、執行和完成都需要時間✘✘,那麼你就可以允許延期•✘☁▩☁。”

In Scotland, there is a similar gripe. The country reckons it will lose out on approximately £93m between 2021-25.

在蘇格蘭✘✘,也有類似的抱怨•✘☁▩☁。該國估計✘✘,在2021年至2025年期間✘✘,它將損失約9300萬英鎊•✘☁▩☁。

A Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) spokesperson said: “The 2019 manifesto commitment maintains the annual farming budget of £2.4bn until 2024-25, with all reductions from farmers’ direct payments being reinvested back into the sector.”

英國環境·•、食品和農村事務部發言人表示₪•▩₪:“2019年的宣言承諾將在2024-25年之前保持24億英鎊的年度農業預算✘✘,農民直接支付的所有削減都將重新投資到該領域•✘☁▩☁。”

They added that the CAP “did nothing to improve food production or food security and gave half the budget to the largest 10% of landowners”. The replacement scheme would “support the choices” and incentivise better farming, they said.

他們補充說✘✘,共同農業政策“沒有改善糧食生產或糧食安全✘✘,而是把一半的預算給了10%最大的土地所有者”•✘☁▩☁。他們說✘✘,替代計劃將“支援選擇”並激勵更好的農業•✘☁▩☁。

In England, the phasing out of the CAP is well under way with a new environmental land management scheme (ELMs) that will prioritise better practices in farming and environmental protection with financial incentives for moves such as reduction in fertiliser use or the maintenance of moorlands.

在英格蘭✘✘,隨著一項新的環境土地管理計劃的實施✘✘,共同農業政策的逐步淘汰工作正在順利進行✘✘,該計劃將優先考慮農業和環境保護方面的更好做法✘✘,並對減少化肥使用或維護沼地等行動提供財政激勵•✘☁▩☁。

Defra figures show that the phasing out of the CAP is already affecting farm incomes even though the replacement scheme is still sketchy.

環境·•、食品和農村事務部的資料顯示✘✘,共同農業政策的逐步淘汰已經影響到了農業收入✘✘,儘管替代方案仍然很粗略•✘☁▩☁。

The progressive phasing out of the CAP has left farmers at least 20% down this year and they will be short by 50% of the previous EU subsidy in 2024 with the remaining money due to be reinvested in farming under the “public money for public goods” policy. By 2028 the practice of subsidising farmers per acre in England will have been eliminated, the government says.

共同農業政策的逐步取消使農民今年至少減少了20%✘✘,到2024年✘✘,他們將缺少之前歐盟補貼的50%✘✘,剩餘資金將根據“公共資金用於公共產品”政策重新投資於農業•✘☁▩☁。政府稱✘✘,到2028年✘✘,英國將取消每英畝補貼農民的做法•✘☁▩☁。
原創翻譯₪•▩₪:龍騰網 http://www.ltaaa.cn 轉載請註明出處


“Farmers in England are now receiving less support, quite significantly less, so that will impact incomes,” says Nick von Westenholz, the director of trade and business strategy at the NFU.

全國農場主聯合會貿易和商業戰略主管尼克·馮·韋斯頓霍爾茲表示₪•▩₪:“英國農民現在得到的支援越來越少✘✘,非常少✘✘,這將影響他們的收入•✘☁▩☁。”

“Most farmers still don’t know what it is that they’ll be signing up to in future years, or what they’ll have to do to meet the requirements of any new scheme,” he adds.

他補充說₪•▩₪:“大多數農民仍然不知道他們在未來幾年將簽署什麼協議✘✘,或者他們必須做些什麼才能滿足任何新計劃的要求•✘☁▩☁。”

Under the plan in England, direct payments will be phased out completely by 2028. In its places, under ELMs, is a countryside stewardship scheme and the sustainable farming incentive (SFI) scheme.

根據英國的計劃✘✘,直接支付將在2028年完全取消•✘☁▩☁。在環境土地管理計劃之下✘✘,有一個農村管理計劃和可持續農業激勵計劃•✘☁▩☁。

Defra says about 32,000 farmers have already signed up to the countryside stewardship scheme, up 90% since Brexit was signed off in 2020.

環境·•、食品和農村事務部表示✘✘,約有3.2萬名農民簽署了農村管理計劃✘✘,比2020年英國脫歐簽署後增加了90%•✘☁▩☁。

The SFI scheme is still being piloted with new details to be announced in January.

可持續農業激勵計劃仍在試點階段✘✘,新的細節將於2023年1月公佈•✘☁▩☁。
原創翻譯₪•▩₪:龍騰網 http://www.ltaaa.cn 轉載請註明出處


Farmers have expressed concern that the administration and resource needed to participate in the scheme reduce its attractiveness.

農民們已經表達了參與該計劃所需的管理和資源會降低其吸引力的擔憂•✘☁▩☁。

“If the payments don’t make business sense, you will find farmers won’t sign up to the scheme,” says Von Westenholz.

“如果支付沒有商業意義✘✘,你會發現農民不會簽署該計劃✘✘,”馮·韋斯滕霍爾茨說•✘☁▩☁。

For the NFU, which was vocal about the need to maintain trade and animal welfare standards, Brexit is still causing uncertainty for farm businesses six years after the referendum.

英國全國農場主聯合會曾直言需要維持貿易和動物福利標準✘✘,但在公投六年後✘✘,英國脫歐仍在給農業企業帶來不確定性•✘☁▩☁。

“Brexit was always going to lead to considerable change for farm businesses in the UK, with the end of free movement of labour and the CAP and a restructuring of our trading relationship with the EU and the rest of the world. But more than six years on from the referendum there is still massive uncertainty as to what that change actually looks like,” says Von Westenholz.

“脫歐總是會給英國的農業企業帶來巨大的變化✘✘,勞動力自由流動和共同農業政策的結束✘✘,以及我們與歐盟和世界其他地區貿易關係的重組•✘☁▩☁。但是公投已經過去6年多了✘✘,這種改變到底是什麼樣子✘✘,仍然存在很大的不確定性•✘☁▩☁。”

And while trade deals with big agricultural exporterssuch as Australia and New Zealand have been struck, thus increasing competition in the domestic market, “associated plans for increasing our exports and improving competitiveness appear to still be in the development phase”, he says, “while at the same time trade in agricultural products with our nearest neighbours in Europe has reduced dramatically”.

他表示✘✘,儘管與澳大利亞和紐西蘭等大型農產品出口國達成了貿易協議✘✘,從而加劇了國內市場的競爭✘✘,但“增加我們出口和提高競爭力的相關計劃似乎仍處於發展階段✘✘,而與此同時✘✘,與我們最近的歐洲鄰國的農產品貿易已大幅減少”•✘☁▩☁。

“None of this is inevitable, but it does need political will, compromise and long-term planning to resolve,” says Von Westenholz.

“這些都不是不可避免的✘✘,但確實需要政治意願·•、妥協和長期規劃來解決✘✘,” 馮·韋斯滕霍爾茨說•✘☁▩☁。

Regarding claims that British farming was being put at risk by trade deals, a Defra spokesperson said the “interests of our farmers and food producers is a priority of our trade policy and our trade deals are delivering on this. Our negotiations will continue to support farmers.”

關於貿易協議將英國農業置於風險之中的說法✘✘,環境·•、食品和農村事務部發言人表示₪•▩₪:“我們的農民和食品生產商的利益是我們貿易政策的優先事項✘✘,我們的貿易協議正在實現這一點•✘☁▩☁。我們的談判將繼續支援農民•✘☁▩☁。”

In December, the environment secretary, Thérèsa Coffey, promised that the next batch of SFI payments, to be unveiled in the new year, would be easier and more beneficial to farmers.

去年12月✘✘,英國環境大臣特蕾莎科·菲承諾✘✘,將於明年公佈的下一批可持續農業激勵計劃補貼將對農民更容易·•、更有利•✘☁▩☁。

She pledged to have the “full range” of replacement supports in place by 2024, which would work whether “you are a commoner, upland farmer, or small family farm”.

她承諾✘✘,到2024年✘✘,將提供“全方位”的替代支援✘✘,無論“你是平民·•、山地農民還是小型家庭農場”✘✘,都將發揮作用•✘☁▩☁。